Nanoscale flow choking in cardiovascular system: exact prediction 3D BLB in nanotubes
We have established herein that, due to the evolving boundary layer and the corresponding area blockage in the upstream port of any internal nanofluid flow system with sudden expansion or divergent region, the creeping diabatic nanoflow (Mi < < 1) originated from the upstream port of the system could accelerate to the supersonic flow leading to an undesirable phenomenon of pressure-overshoot due to shock wave generation as a result of the Sanal flow choking. Through the proposed mathematical methodology, we could disprove the general belief of the impossibilities of internal flow choking in such real-world nanoscale fluid flow systems at the creeping inflow conditions. There was a general belief in the scientific community over the centuries that the subsonic/creeping flow would not be augmented up to supersonic flow without passing through a geometric throat, which we have disproved herein through the closed-form analytical model. Note that if the total-to-static pressure ratio at the fluid-throat is lower than the LCDI the detonation would not occur even if the blockage factor is relatively high in nanoscale fluid flow systems. The physical insight of the nanoscale Sanal flow choking and streamtube flow choking14 presented in this article sheds light on finding solutions to numerous unresolved scientific problems carried forward over the centuries. We concluded that the 3D-boundary-layer-blockage factors presented herein are universal-benchmark-data for performing high-fidelity in silico, in vitro and in vivo experiments in nanotubes with different working fluids with credibility. Briefly, discovery of nanoscale Sanal flow choking and streamtube flow choking in real-world flow offers disruptive technologies at the cutting edge to resolve century-long unresolved problems in physical, chemical and biological sciences.